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Loss of harmony: The rise of a new Tajikistan and the fall of old aspirations for the better

Article by Xeniya Mironova

May 17, 2021

Loss of harmony: The rise of a new Tajikistan and the fall of old aspirations for the better

In the past ten years, almost every Central Asian republic has been demonstrating its sovereignty and independence through redevelopment of the architectural image of its capital city and the creation of the new architectural symbols of freedom. Such a tendency of complete destruction of the old is neither unusual, nor unexpected to say goodbye to the Soviet past and many tangible objects associated with it. Indeed, Nursultan Nazarbayev redeveloped Nur-Sultan (previously Astana) as a presidential city with plenty of monuments which are the landmarks of the contemporary Kazakh futuristic architecture. The old city of Bishkek contains plenty of buildings built during the Soviet-era, however, most of them have been left dilapidated, and by now, no revival is expected for them. Ashgabat, ‘the City of White Marble’, is widely known as an embodiment of the broad ambitions of its presidents, where out of the post-Soviet Ashgabat Saparmurat Niyazov and Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov created the monumental city which suppresses the consciousness’s of its citizens. Under the rule of Islam Karimov, Tashkent faced great demolitions and dramatic reconstructions of the Soviet-era buildings, and the current president is also committed to further transformation of Tashkent into a modern business mecca. As for Dushanbe, a great number of Soviet-era buildings were already demolished, as they are the exact Soviet tangible objects which were ‘easy to reach’ to erase the legacy of the former generations, and to be replaced by other monuments which would belong to the generations living under the rule of Emomali Rahmon. While appealing again and again to the Tajik Government about the preservation of Soviet-era buildings it is like ‘trying to pour water into a sieve’. However, it is useful to consider and analyse the current situation, as well as to make further suggestions to the Government and other stakeholders for their further consideration and to put it into practice.


Construction sector and COVID-19

Currently in the time of COVID-19, it might be interesting to consider how the Government of Tajikistan copes with the new reality and how it lets the construction sector function in it. In Tajikistan, the official acknowledgement of the outbreak of the coronavirus pandemic took place on April 30th 2020, i.e. just ahead of an official visit of a World Health Organization (WHO) team to the country to investigate whether the previous official denial of the absence of the virus was based on evidence. By the end of January 2021, Rahmon announced that there was no coronavirus in the country any more.


Considering the rapid flattening of the curve of cases and deaths, one could think about the earliness of this announcement.[1] It seems that the Government would like to lift most of the restrictions connected to the battle with COVID-19. However, this should not influence the sector of construction in Dushanbe greatly, as during the pandemic forced evictions continued, and there was only a partial stop of some construction activities.[2] For instance, in the beginning of the pandemic in Tajikistan, the reconstruction of Korvon Bazaar (a market in Dushanbe) was closed only for three months. Later, all construction activities were resumed.


The image of the Tajik capital is still being transformed, and there are many more destructions and redevelopments to come. Most of them include further demolitions of the Soviet buildings, and construction of new governmental buildings, new residencies for the heads of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization’s member states along with several new posh hotels, ordinary residential buildings, outdoor water parks, bazaars, monuments, etc.


Residency registration system

Most of the changes in the image of the Tajik capital are connected not only with the demolitions of substantial historical and unhistorical buildings, but also with the issue of forced evictions which becomes more intense because of the holdover of the Soviet system called propiska. This residency registration system is common for all post-Soviet Central Asia, but in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan its name varies.


In Tajikistan, propiska is used to control internal and external migration and the way Tajik citizens fulfil their duties to the state.[3] It is inscribed in the passports of the Tajik citizens. However, even in present days there is a large number of those living without any identification documents and, as a result, without any propiska. This is a repercussion of the civil war (1992-1997), and in many cases it happens because of the legal illiteracy of a large part of the population, economic difficulties, and/or the absence of an official permission to live in the country which is mostly actual for ethnic Uzbeks and Afghans, who have been living in the border areas between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan for many years.[4] The exact number of those living without passports is not defined, and Kevin Allen, UNHCR Representative in Tajikistan remarks that “[…] many people avoid appealing to the Government entities, as they are afraid of deportation and administrative punishment.”[5]


Having no propiska means violation of people’s rights in terms of access to such basic rights as: the right to housing, the right to health protection, the right to education, the right to appeal and information, the right to participate in public life, the right to vote, the right to labour, the right of ownership, etc. Moreover, the absence of propiska leads to unemployment, poverty, fraud, and other consequences (including getting any kind of social support from the state). Having no propiska makes people vulnerable against the state and those who use the illegal status of this part of the population for their own benefit. According to the Article 469 of the Code of Administrative Violations of the Republic of Tajikistan, there is an administrative punishment for living without propiska.[6] Moreover, there is a designated period of 15 days set for getting propiska.


In general, Tajik officials do not restrict the number of people who can get propiska to live in Dushanbe or other Tajik towns. This system is mostly used as a generic form of state control over the population. Thus, not registered people of Tajikistan either live without propiska, or in order to benefit from getting social support from the state and/or enjoy all basic rights mentioned above, they try to find alternative ways to make it. For instance, if a person does not have his or her own housing, he or she tries to find an alternative housing where it will be possible to get propiska. In many cases, people pay to the owners of the housing where propiska is made. In such situations, it is impossible to get birth certificates and passports, and claim pensions, etc.


However, there are cases when the state realises the impossibility of getting any propiska, but nothing is made to improve the situation. This is happening with orphans when they are 16 years old or older, and are of the legal age of majority to leave children’s homes. Such children are not provided with any kind of housing, and as a result, these children are not able to register anywhere and get any propiska at all. According to Navruz Odinaev, the Lawyer and Head of the Himoya legal company, “the owners of the temporary housing where orphans live refuse to register their guests very often.”[7]


The disadvantaged and underprivileged people are another segment of population that suffers from the imperfection of the state system. These people do not have any possibility to purchase housing and as a result, to make propiska legally. For instance, a case of Elvira Tumarova, a Tajik citizen who as a migrant worker went to Russia with her mother, but because of the expired documents was deported back to Tajikistan.[8] Elvira does not have a place to live, and she suffers from epilepsy. Because of her disease and the absence of propiska she is not able to work legally, to survive she gathers pinecones in one of the city’s parks and sells them as kindling. Once because of the absence of the passport and propiska, Elvira spent 48 hours in a temporary detention facility – this is the exact reason why this woman does not search for any kind of support from the Government any more. Now, the only thing she has to rely on is herself.


Those people, who like Elvira’s mother sold their housing and after facing troubles were left without any money, and/or purchased new apartments in new constructions which did not pass the state commissioning even after the completion of constructions, are also not able to get propiska.


Moreover, the absence of registration can lead to the fact that if any woman without propiska is pregnant, she will not be able to give birth in a maternity clinic, but in a department of infectious disease. Additionally, people with the absence of propiska are not able to get a driving license and/or will not be able to purchase a sim card, and by the Government’s request to register with the IMEIs (International Mobile Equipment Identifier) in the future.[9]


After getting an official request from the Himoya legal company, Tajik Ministry of Internal Affairs recognised that they “allow the issue of passports with the possibility of registration in the reception centers”.[10] However, it is unclear whether people are informed about this opportunity and whether it is used in practice.


Additionally, it is worth noting that the issue of propiska brings difficulties even to those who have it. This is the case of those who have double citizenship with the Russian Federation. There are more than 250,000 people in Tajikistan who have such a double citizenship, and these people have to choose in which country to register.[11] According to the Russian and Tajik legislations, one should be permanently registered only in one place; and it might be troublesome to get a temporary propiska in Tajikistan in case one owns an apartment in Russia and an apartment in Tajikistan.


Demolitions and forced evictions     

Current house demolitions in Dushanbe are undertaken by the state against the old solid two-, three-, and four-deckers built in the Soviet period and mainly located in the downtown of the city. In 2020 alone, a general number of demolished residential buildings totaled 422.[12] Among them, there are the first three-decker with three big and beautiful amphoras which dress the front façade of the Stalin-era house ever built in Dushanbe, two- and three-deckers with oriental stucco moldings, and a two-decker where Nikolay Voinovich, a famous Soviet journalist, Vladimir Voinovich, a famous Russian novelist, poet and playwright, Nikolay Akimov, an artistic director of the Leningrad Theatre of Comedy, George Millyar, a People’s Artist of the RSFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), and Evgeniy Shvarc, a famous Soviet story-teller, all lived. All these and many other Soviet-era buildings are being replaced with the new multistoried residential buildings predominantly of poor quality.


The authorities justify the construction of residential houses between nine- and 18-storeys and the construction of administration buildings between 25- and 30-storeys by cost-effectiveness and space-saving.[13] However, many areas in the suburbs remain built-up by the slum dwellings, and no information about demolition of such dwellings and/or their replacement by the new constructions is available. For instance, this is a case in the Yuzhnyi neighbourhood, the Pervyi Sovetskyi district, the Chehovskaya mahallya [neighbourhood], the Borbad neighbourhood, the Avtovokzal neighbourhood, etc. However, nowadays, despite developing the suburbs with slum dwellings, the authorities continue ‘improving’ the downtown and are also considering building new constructions in the eastern part of Dushanbe.[14] At the same time, they ‘forgot’ that this part of Dushanbe is not suitable for constructions because of the loose soil. Due to this, it is in the list of ten areas which are dangerous for any kind of construction – especially the construction of multistory buildings.[15]


Tajikistan is a mountainous country experiencing earthquakes on an ongoing basis, and all constructions made in the Soviet period were designed according to the seismic categories existing in the country. During the Soviet period, not every part of Dushanbe was built-up. According to Gafur Shermatov, a famous Tajik historian, and many former tenants of demolished Soviet-era buildings, the usefulness of almost all Soviet-era buildings demolished in the downtown and those under demolition could be prolonged; and due to the high quality of their constructions, they could accommodate many other future generations of Tajik citizens.[16] However, no chance was left for these buildings, and the state did not consider any possibility of renovation of Soviet-era buildings (including historical) or their restoration. The authorities deny any value and solidness of old buildings, they mostly do not go into any kind of dialogue with the general population and insist stubbornly that Dushanbe is a young city without any particular influence of the Soviets on the history of the capital, which should be built-up all over again.[17]


Additionally, they report that the construction activities of 46 new residential buildings will be finalised by the 30th anniversary of the independence of Tajikistan, which will be celebrated on September 9th 2021.[18] However, this rush, the embezzlement of funds, and the use of construction materials of low-quality lead to the cases where the constructions did not go through the official state commissioning process.[19] That is why at the end of 2020, Rustam Emomali, a Mayor of Dushanbe, claimed that he would seek the improvement of these “disadvantages and defects in constructions” by the provision of the most experienced construction companies, personnel and construction materials.[20] However, back in 2017, the Mayor had already started to control the construction activities in Dushanbe and he already raised the issue of faulty construction at one of the cabinet councils.[21] Thus, as the situation has remained unchanged, and as only few months have passed since the Mayor’s most recent declaration, the same questions about the quality of works, the possibility of fire evacuations, and about whether the authorities pay any attention to the geographical peculiarities of the area being developed remain.


All these changes in the construction sector of Dushanbe indicated in the final version of the not publicly known and not publicly discussed municipal redevelopment plans of Dushanbe (General plans) caused the emergence of the issue of forced evictions.[22] Those who had been forcibly evicted already faced and continue facing many challenges connected to the unwillingness of real estate developers to pay lucrative compensations for the housing, withholding of rent, and different kinds of fraud from the side of the real estate developers.


According to the 2020 Valuation Act of the Republic of Tajikistan, the real estate developers are responsible for making notarial deed contracts on compensations with forcibly evicted.[23] The same law states that the property under demolition should be appraised by a real estate appraiser. And if a property owner does not agree with the conducted real estate appraisal, he or she might hire another independent real estate appraiser who is able to provide his or her expertise on the property under question. Simultaneously, the owner of the property can go to the court and demand a recall of the real estate appraisal made by the real estate developer. However, not every forcibly evicted in Tajikistan is aware about his or her legal rights, and this leads to the fact that the right for housing is greatly violated in Tajikistan.


Because of the inaction of authorities and their unwillingness to consider people’s opinion, the forcibly evicted have to seek justice through insubordination to authorities’ decisions, media coverage, appeals to court and the Prosecutor-General’s Office, and appeals to the public organisation – Independent Center for Human Rights’ Protection. In some cases, persistence by the forcibly evicted have already paid off, in other cases further action is required.


For instance, the case of the tenement #74 on Tursunzade Street gained the attention of mass media because of the unwillingness of its tenants to accept low levels of reimbursement for the evicted housing set by the real estate developer.[24] Several families of the tenants of this tenement refused to move out, and the authorities had to start demolition of the roof with these families living in the building. This demolition led to the tenants’ property damage caused by the rainy weather. To seek justice, the tenants had to unsuccessfully appeal to the court and the Prosecutor-General’s Office. The real help was received from the Independent Center for Human Rights’ Protection which provided the tenants with an experienced lawyer. And after more than 23 months, the issue, with lucrative compensation for the housing, was solved; and currently, the last tenants are in the process of signing a new contract with the real estate developer.


A similar case is happening with the tenants of the tenement located on 49 Bukhoro Street, who faced the illegal demolition of half of their tenement by the real estate developer Pulodi Plaza. Without having a building demolition permit, the real estate developer demolished the roof and windows of part of the building which had been left by the tenants. Another part of the building was still inhabited by those tenants who decided not to move out. Later, the real estate developer invited the representatives of the Committee of Emergency Situations and Civil Defense to recognise the tenement as unsafe. The tenants of the building appealed to the Mayor, court and the President of the Republic of Tajikistan. However, the situation with the demolition of the tenement remain unchanged, and the real estate developer still does not guarantee sufficient compensation for the rehousing of the tenants of 49 Bukhoro Street. The chronicle of events is registered by the tenants in the Facebook group ‘Dom Buhoro 49’.[25]


Dushanbe is full of similar cases of real estate developers trying not to fulfil their duties to the forcibly evicted.[26] Moreover, there are other cases of different examples of fraud made by real estate developers in the construction sector, such as: (i) Dushanbe real estate developers issued contracts which did not contain real dates for the end of construction;[27] (ii) they issued contracts which did not contain any dates for provision of documents of entitlement for new housing;[28] (iii) they issued contracts which contained false information, as they intentionally decreased the overall area of the demolished housing;[29] and (iv) they issued contracts which contained false information on the overall area of the new housing, as they intentionally decreased it, and included no information on the terms for providing additional accommodation in case if the overall area of the new housing was smaller.[30] Additionally, many real estate developers do not pay the rent of the forcibly evicted.[31]


Currently, the real estate developers continue making money out of thin air by suppressing the tenants of the Soviet-era buildings, forcibly evicting them from their houses and issuing illegal contracts. In return, the forcibly evicted continue their fight with the real estate developers and insist on the real estate developers to statutorily pay for their leases, as well as suing real estate developers and possibly getting appropriate compensation for their loss.


Money in the construction sector and ties to the family

Historically, the construction sector is one of the sectors most vulnerable to corruption. The constant presence of the same people in power can weaken this sector’s functionality and lead to imperfections in its structure. The closure of the political system allows those in the system to overstep and make good use of the office and power for their own ends. Additionally, the situation with the money in the construction sector of Tajikistan worsens because of the shortage of public information as the state authorities provide only general information about money spent in the sector, but almost no details. In most of the cases, it is extremely difficult to trace money spent in one of the chosen industries.


If we consider the state budget of Tajikistan, we will see that most of the parts of its budget data are unofficially hidden from the population. In many cases, only summary data on defined sectors of the state budget is publicly available. The published law ‘On State Budget – 2020’ and the ‘Citizens’ Budget of the Republic of Tajikistan for 2020’ provide only limited information.[32] Thus currently, without having all the numbers and data from the state budget, one can only try to analyse and understand how the money of taxpayers is spent in the construction sector of Tajikistan.


There, one can find that in 2020, the state budget revenues made more than TJS 3,170,000,000 (approx. $278.34 million).[33] These revenues were composed of the tax and non-tax revenues, grants (budget support), loans (public investment), grants (public investment), and revenues of budget organisations. According to the information in mass media about the report ‘Economic and Social Status of the Republic of Tajikistan’ prepared by the Statistical Agency, the investments in the construction sector between January and September 2020 comprised TJS 7,616,200,000 ($740 million).[34] However, currently the text of this report and other similar reports which should contain data on the rest of the months of the year are not publicly available.


Additionally, according to mass media more than TJS 2,000,000,000 ($194 million) was allocated to the construction sector of Dushanbe out of different sources in 2020.[35] Again, due to the unavailability of the report ‘Economic and Social Status of the Republic of Tajikistan’ it was not possible to check the data on what exact sources had been considered by the Statistical Agency. Additionally, the Government preliminary planned that the expenditures of the state budget of the Republic of Tajikistan in 2020 in ‘the Industry and Construction’ sector would comprise TJS 232,400,000 ($22,542,800).[36] However in the beginning of 2021, the Government informed that all construction activities used more than TJS 11,600,000,000 ($1.1252bn) of all kind of investments in 2020.[37]


Tajikistan depends on foreign credit a lot, and the following countries are among the main external creditors of the state: China, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, France, and Germany.[38] International organisations providing their credit to the state are: the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, Islamic Development Bank, the Eurasian Economic Union Anti-Crisis Fund, and the International Monetary Fund. The state provides no information on how exactly this money is spent in the housing sector.[39] And according to the investors’ reports, the biggest part of the foreign money is spent on the construction of power facilities, roads, the Rogun hydropower plant and in the sectors of education, agriculture, health, water supply, etc.[40]


As for the local people and companies involved in the construction sector of Dushanbe, one should note that it is the real estate developers close to the policy elite of the state and/or associated with the family of the President of the Republic of Tajikistan who are undertaking the largest projects. In most of the cases this information is also hidden by the state, but behind-the-scenes almost every citizen of Tajikistan is aware that it is almost impossible ‘to survive’ in the sector of construction without any support from or connection to the state authorities.


For instance, one of the biggest real estate developers greatly redeveloping Dushanbe is a limited liability company (LLC) Elit-Stroy-Servis (Elite Build Service).[41] This company was established in 2007, and since that time, it has built one 13-storey residential building in Khujand, four 12-storey residential buildings in Dushanbe, two nine-storey residential properties in Dushanbe, and one five-storey residential building in Dushanbe.[42] This company belongs to Izzat Davlatov, a son of Nusratullo Davlatzoda, the head of the Tax Committee of the Republic of Tajikistan.[43]


An example of how an affinity with the President’s family could be more profitable is the case of Beg Sabur, the head of the Communication Service of Tajikistan and relative by marriage of Emomali Rahmon.[44] He was selling apartments in Dushanbe which had been constructed by the LLC Komil 2010, owned by Siyovush Zuhurov, his son. After the high-profile journalist investigation about such a profitable business of Beg Sabur, the head of the Communication Service became unavailable for the journalists and common population, though after every journalist’s request to provide information about Beg Sabur’s presence at work the state authorities continued insisting that Sabur is on a field trip.[45]


In February 2021, the authorities reported that the license of Komil 2010 (its office is located in the building of the Communication Service; and according to the experts, the owner of Komil 2010 is Beg Sabur as such) and Niagara, another real estate development company owned by Beg Sabur, would be revoked after delivering the rest of construction projects he was involved in.[46] Additionally, because of the poor quality of the constructions built by both companies, it is planned that the rest of residential buildings built by Komil 2010 would be checked by the state quality control. Moreover, apart from the numerous violations in the quality of all constructions, for the last eight years the owners of the apartments located in Zarafshon district of Dushanbe did not have any documents for their property. The authorities are aware of this situation, but seek for public understanding and ask to stop criticising Sabur, as “he was very active in this case”.[47] Currently, because of the poor quality of its constructions, Niagara and Komil 2010 are on the black list of real estate development companies.[48]


Apart from the involvement of the family members of government officials in the sector of construction of residential buildings, other private persons also largely built in Tajikistan. It was in June 2020 that the Government reported about 16 private persons building in the sector of construction.[49] Previously, this number reached 20. However, earlier in February 2020, the authorities stated that since 2018 building permission had not been provided to private persons. Previously, private persons could construct tenements even without having a construction license. For instance, a case of construction of a five-storey tenement located on N. Karabaeva St. resulted in people who had purchased apartments in that tenement not being able to get their documents proving entitlement of ownership from the real estate developer.[50] Currently, the general number of construction companies working in Tajikistan reach 2,113, out of which 80 companies are foreign.


The above described involvement of private persons and politicians’ family members in different money earning schemes indicate the lack of transparency and the conflict of interests which currently exist in the construction sector of Tajikistan. The closeness of political system to people coming from ‘another world’ and the indulgence to violations made by the officials are likely to encourage numerous violations in the sector and corruption-related crime. In 2020, the Agency for State Financial Control and Combating Corruption of the Republic of Tajikistan informed journalists about only three crimes in the sector of architecture and construction, despite the great number of violations in the construction sector recorded by mass media and other different sources, such low figure raises a lot of questions.[51] Thus, it is high time to start working towards transparency and the lack of conflict of interests in the sector of construction of Tajikistan. However, currently one can only suggest that as the state continues to pursue the quasi-legal schemes of money-making and the non-criticism policy similar to the one used in the case of Beg Sabur.


Conclusion and recommendations to the Tajik authorities

Though the state already decided on the future of Tajikistan and its capital respectively, it is never too late to think better of it, consider the public opinion and improve the existing situation. The Government of the Republic of Tajikistan should remember that the most advanced economies honour their histories and tend to preserve the harmony in the appearance of their states which they received from their ancestors. Therefore, to keep the soul of Tajikistan alive and ensure the wellbeing of its society, Tajik authorities should organise public hearings on the reconstruction and redevelopment of the Tajik capital and other towns and ensure that civil society has access to the General Plans of Dushanbe and other towns respectively. Additionally, the state should stop all demolitions and forced evictions in Dushanbe, perform additional expert analysis of old buildings, consider the opinion of the majority of civil society, and learn the history of Tajikistan and its capital to preserve the rest of the Soviet-era historical buildings for future generations. Moreover, the state should consider abolishing the system of propiska, to minimise its consequences which make the life of Tajik citizens more complicated, and bring transparency and accountability to the sector of construction in Tajikistan.


More precise recommendations to the Tajik Government are below:

  • Involve civil society in discussion of General Plans of Dushanbe and other Tajik towns;
  • Preserve the soul of Dushanbe and make renovations and restorations to what’s left of the Soviet-era historical buildings of architectural merit;
  • Arrange the registration of people and issuing of passports in reception centers;
  • Provide social housing to the orphan and homeless;
  • Ensure the provision of adequate housing and/or payment to the forcibly evicted;
  • Secure fraud protection by using the existing regulatory framework and ensuring compliance with the contracts’ terms and conditions;
  • Gain transparency and make information on the money available and spent in the construction sector publically available; and
  • Provide effective control of all construction works and stop excusing all violations in this sector.


Xeniya Mironova is an independent scholar, translator and writer with research interest in Central Asia. She has been researching the Soviet-era architecture of Central Asian countries for the past six years. 


Image by Ninara under (CC).


[1] National Coronavirus Portal (COVID-19) – see website:

[2] ICHRP, CA countries: How is the right to housing respected during a pandemic?, August 2020,

[3] Valentina Kasymbekova, How does a residence permit violate the rights of citizens, and why is it still not removed?, ASIA-Plus, November 2019,

[4] Anora Sarkorova, Tajikistan: the invisible fates of invisible people, BBC Russian Service, May 2015,

[5] Ibid.

[6] Kodeks Respubliki Tadzhikistan Ob Administrativnyh Pravonarusheniyah,

[7] Valentina Kasymbekova, How does a residence permit violate the rights of citizens, and why is it still not removed?, ASIA-Plus, November 2019,

[8] Anna Miftakhova, Elvira, 28, from Proletarsk, lives in the park. To feed, she has to collect cones, ASIA-Plus, February 2021,

[9] Bakhmaner Nadirov, “Where is Beg Sabur?” What questions did the journalists ask the Communication Service of Tajikistan?, ASIA-Plus, February 2021,

[10] Valentina Kasymbekova, How does a residence permit violate the rights of citizens, and why is it still not removed?, ASIA-Plus, November 2019,

[11] Chiromon Bacosoda, Russia simplifies the procedure for obtaining citizenship for highly qualified specialists, Radio Ozodi, October 2019,

[12] Sharif Sami, In the metropolitan area of I. Somoni, 422 residential buildings were demolished in 2020, ICHRP, February 2021,

[13] IA Krasnaya Vesna, Social War: Infrastructure of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, Rossa Primavera, November 2020,; ICHRP, Main architecture of Tajikistan: High-rise buildings in the country are being built in order to save land, November 2020,; Glavgosexpertiza of Russia, General plans for reconstruction of 90% of cities and regional centers approved in Tajikistan, November 2020,

[14] Fergana News, The score rules there: Will new buildings in Dushanbe survive a strong earthquake?, August 2019,

[15] Rustam Nazarzoda, In 2020, 141 residential buildings were damaged by natural disasters in Tajikistan, ICHRP, February 2021,

[16] Gafur Shermatov, Facebook Post, Facebook, February 2021,

[17] Ibid.

[18] Sharif Sami, In the metropolitan area of I. Somoni, 422 residential buildings were demolished in 2020, ICHRP, February 2021,

[19] Fergana News, The score rules here: Will new buildings in Dushanbe survive a strong earthquake?, August 2019,

[20] ICHRP, The chairman of the city of Dushanbe expressed concern about the presence of shortcomings and shortcomings in the construction sector of the capital, December 2020,

[21] Cabar Asia, Dushanbe: new buildings for the elite, April 2018,

[22], Destructing Soviet Architecture in Central Asia, December 2019,


[24] ICHRP, Tursunzade-74: All the dots above the ‘I’ are p[laced, the house is ready for demolition, February 2021,

[25] Buhoro 49, Facebook Community, Facebook,

[26] ICHRP, Not everything is gold that is built, June 2019,

[27] ICHRP, The developer listened to the hopes of the residents of the demolished two-story building, November 2020,

[28] Ibid.

[29] ICHRP, Alternative solution to a disputable situation: Conclusion of a new agreements, November 2020,

[30] ICHRP, The developer listened to the hopes of the residents of the demolished two-story building, November 2020,

[31] ICHRP, The developer has not paid rent for the fourth year…, January 2021,

[32] Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Tajikistan and Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On the State Budget for 2020”, Citizen’s Budget 2020,’%20budget-en.pdf; Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Tajikistan and Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On the State Budget for 2020”, Citizen’s Budget 2020,’%20budget-en.pdf

[33] Avaz Yuldashev, Dushanbe’s budget to be over 3 billion somoni, ASIA-Plus, December 2019,

[34] Ibid; Statistics Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan, The report “Socio-economic situation of the Republic of Tajikistan” for January-September 2020 was released,

[35] Sputnik News, It became known how much money was spent in 2020 on the construction sector, October 2020,

[36] Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Tajikistan and Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On the State Budget for 2020”, Citizen’s Budget 2020,’%20budget-en.pdf

[37] Payrav Chorshanbiev, More than $1.1 billion of investments allocated for construction in Tajikistan in 2020, ASIA-Plus, February 2021,

[38] Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Tajikistan and Law of the Republic of Tajikistan “On the State Budget for 2020”, Citizen’s Budget 2020,’%20budget-en.pdf

[39] Map Invest Com, see website:

[40] Invest Com, Information about current state investment projects, September 2019,

[41] Elite Story Service, see website:

[42] ASIA-Plus, Top 5 construction companies in Dushanbe that are rebuilding the city, August 2019,

[43] Safar Jamoliddini, Tajik businessmen flee corruption abroad, Komsomolskaya Pravda, December 2016,; Tax Committee under the Government of the Republic of Tajikistan, Manual,

[44] Y. Halimov, The Houses That Beg Built, Cabar Asia, March 2019,

[45] Ibid; Alisher Zarifi and Amriddin Olim, Beg’s son Sabur’s company may lose its license to build high-rise buildings?, Radio Ozodi, January 2020,; Bakhmaner Nadirov, “Where is Beg Sabur?” What questions did the journalists ask the Communication Service of Tajikistan?, ASIA-Plus, February 2021,

[46] Sputnik News, Two construction companies, owned by the head of the Communications Service, Beg Sabur, will have their licenses for the construction of buildings revoked after they hand over the old objects, February 2021,

[47] Ibid.

[48] The Asia Times, Construction companies of Bega Sabur hit black list in Tajikistan, February 2021,

[49] ICHRP, 2113 construction companies work in Tajikistan, July 2020,

[50] Mahmadsaid Zuvaydzoda, Building permits are not issued to individuals, ICHRP, December 2020,

[51] ICHRP, More than 1.2 thousand corruption crimes detected in Tajikistan in six months, July 2020,

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